Organic legumes: how cultivation occurs
While integrated agriculture and conventional agriculture presuppose the use of chemistry through synthetic pesticides, herbicides and fertilizers in order to remedy negligence and errors committed by the producer, organic production is based on agronomic methods that allow crops to develop into optimal environmental conditions, avoiding the appearance of health or nutritional problems. The cultivation of organic legumes is based, first of all, on the respect of the characteristics of the climate (humidity, temperature, rainfall, etc.) and of the soil (wealth of nutrients, acidity, depth and texture). The best soil is a free soil, with a pH whose value is between 6.5 and 7.5, characterized by an excellent drainage. As far as the best germination temperature is concerned, it is between twenty and twenty-nine degrees, with a minimum germination temperature at ten degrees and a thermal maximum at thirty-five. In this sector we need to avoid the re-stoppage, taking into account that an interval of three years must elapse between two successive cycles. The risk deriving from an excessively narrow succession, in fact, must be identified in the deterioration of quality, but also of quantity, of production.
The importance of legumes for the soil
The organic vegetables, moreover, also play a fundamental role for the vegetables that are subsequently sown in that soil as part of the rotation, thanks to their ability to supply nitrogen to the soil: nitrogen that will be made available in the subsequent crop. From the point of view of land management, it is advisable to avoid the formation of depressions and water stagnation, facilitating a quick water drainage through an efficient drainage system. The plowing depth should not exceed forty centimeters: plowing, moreover, should be carried out, ideally, in the summer months preceding the plant. Plowing, if too deep, risks causing a loss of organic substances, due to mineralization: consequently, there is an alteration of the soil structure and its ability to supply nutrients to subsequent crops in the medium and long period. For this same reason, in the presence of catch crops the processing can stop at twenty centimeters. A separate discussion deserves the fertilization of organic pulses, which requires the implementation of a rationalized technique: both to promote an adequate level of fertility, and to prevent the appearance of nutritional imbalances against one crop instead of another . The balances, however, are ensured by organic substances with high buffering capacity. To improve their content, green manure and manure are used.
Which fertilizers to use
In the event that organic vegetables are grown after cereals, there may be a need to distribute an organic fertilizer (slaughter or poultry residues) that is immediately effective, just before sowing, so as to supply the soil with fifty kilograms of nitrogen per hectare . About seeding density, it can be identified in a distance of five or six centimeters on the same row, and in forty centimeters between one row and another. It must, however, be borne in mind that it affects the conditions of the microclimate, and ultimately the sensitivity of legume plants to abiotic problems. The fact remains that overly sparse or excessively thick implants are equally harmful, since they can create imbalances in crop management from the point of view of fertilization or protection from pests and weeds. The crop cycle of organic spelled, organic beans, organic lentils etc. usually lasts two months. The use of polypropylene webs in the earliest structures reduces the risk of late frosts, even if, on the other hand, it contributes to increasing efforts to avoid the onslaught of weeds.
The risk of weeds and weeds
It is evident, in fact, that in organic cultivations the risk of weeds and weeds is much higher than in crops that refer to chemical herbicides. Effective control can be combined with the so-called false seeding, an effective preventive action as valid as pyrolysis. In the cultivation of this type of plants it is possible to achieve an optimal control of the weeds by means of weeding done about two weeks after the emergency, with a hoeing between the rows. The choice of the tools to be used is absolutely fundamental to obtain a perfect control: it is good not to use, in the presence of weeds such as purslane that can reproduce with speed, with rotating instruments such as cutters. The classic weeders are clearly better. Finally, the irrigation of organic vegetables requires different volumes depending on the characteristics of the soil, the richness of organic substances, the climatic conditions, the phenological phase and the texture of the substrate: it is therefore impossible to provide universal data.