Vertical gardens: how they are made
The vertical gardens consist of one or more walls that are cultivated with specific plants. They are rooted in special compartments located inside layered fibrous material attached to the wall. Water supply is guaranteed by a plant located right between the layers. The vertical gardens, in essence, are configured as a form of urban landscape or agriculture, but often the green walls are considered as works of art of exceptional beauty. In most cases, they are in the city, especially at the vertical surfaces of buildings and apartment buildings. The dimensions vary depending on the case, but they can also be significant: just think of the Caixa Forum located in Madrid, which uses the signature of Patrick Blanc, famous botanist, almost five hundred square meters wide and over twenty meters high. The creation of a green wall does not, of course, represent only a distinctive architectural character, but creates a second real skin of the buildings, with considerable advantages from a practical point of view.
The beneficial effects
In fact, a considerable improvement in the thermal insulation of the structure is obtained, while at the same time avoiding direct radiation on the wall of the sun's rays. As a result, the wall does not heat up and does not spread the heat inside. Also with respect to the surrounding buildings, then, there is an improvement in the decorative and aesthetic impact; it should not be forgotten, from a practical point of view, that vertical gardens make it possible to attract fine dust, and therefore translate into important benefits for protection against pollution. In addition to being an aesthetic solution, therefore, they represent a means of thermal regulation, purification from atmospheric polluting agents and acoustic insulation: therefore, ultimately, an energy saving tool. The facades of a building can be equipped with an arboreal covering by virtue of the principle that it is not said that a plant needs land to survive: in fact, many species require only carbon dioxide, oxygen and water, through photosynthesis chlorophyll. But how are vertical gardens made? The construction system refers to a small-sized metal structure, connected to the building by means of clamps, or (depending on the type) self-supporting: a PVC sheet is applied to it, in turn covered with a coating made of felt-board. Thus a technical fabric is created on which the essences already developed (or sometimes simply the seeds) are inserted; in one square meter, there are about thirty plants. Sometimes, the systems use modular panels of reduced dimensions, ready for installation as they are already grassed, which must only be resting on the aluminum frame.
Irrigation and watering
As for the administration of water, a totally automated irrigation system is chosen with homogeneous diffusion, hidden from view. Maintenance, on average, is to be carried out at least four times a year, but clearly the frequency depends on the species selected and on the effect to be obtained (in essence, long or short grass). It can be reduced, in any case, by resorting to automatic fertilization systems, in which the water is enriched with pesticides, fungicides and nutritional elements. What are the species present in vertical gardens? Ideal tree species can be divided into two broad categories according to environmental factors.
Which species can be used
The microthermal species, in particular, are indicated for areas where temperatures are between fifteen and twenty-six degrees, and tolerate to a lesser extent drought, heat, and salinity. To this group, which grows mainly in spring and autumn, belong species such as the festuca rubra, the poa pratensis, the lolium perenne and the festuca arundinacea. Macrothermal species, on the other hand, are not suitable for areas where temperatures are below zero, being more comfortable in warm climates: even, optimal growth conditions occur between twenty-five and thirty-five degrees, while with lower temperatures the plants become dormant and become paler. Zoysie, paspalum vaginatum, cynodon dactylon and stenotaphrum secundatum are part of this group. In conclusion, it is appropriate to reiterate how vertical gardens make facades available that cover concrete benefits such as thermal regulation (given that the air is cooled by the transpiration of the plants, and its circulation is made possible by the interspace), the enhancement economic of the buildings, a filtering action with respect to atmospheric pollutants and in general an overall purification of the air, made possible by the production of oxygen and the absorption of carbon dioxide. Furthermore, it should not be forgotten that the vegetal mass is able to absorb the light and sound waves, and this translates into a reduction of the reverberation and the reduction of noise pollution. Furthermore, vertical gardens are increasingly widespread, with particular writings and drawings, created for advertising purposes, but also internal vertical gardens, not exposed to the public, usually made, on a reduced scale, on balconies and terraces or in particularly large houses. .