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Anciently and traditionally, all over the world, the Chrysanthemum is a symbol of joy, celebration, vitality; these beautiful flowers are used in most of Asia for weddings and major celebrations; in most of central Europe they are among the most beautiful flowers, and take on the meanings of roses. So if you are in England and give you a bouquet of red chrysanthemums, consider the gift as a declaration of love.
There are hundreds of varieties of chrysanthemum, the ease of hybridization of this plant, and the meaning it has, has made it one of the most cultivated flowers for producing bunches and bouquets.
There are chrysanthemums of all colors and all sizes; with huge, fleshy, or thin and linear petals; with pompoms, plates, daisy.
In fact, in Italy the meaning of joy and festivity has remained with only one chrysanthemum: the daisy.
To prepare joyful bouquets and auspicious bouquets, the marguerite is used, or the large cultivated daisies, obviously white, with a golden central disk.
As for all the other chrysanthemums, unfortunately they had the "misfortune" of blossoming in October and November, and have therefore been used for decades for the feast of the dead. This custom of using chrysanthemums to decorate the tombs of deceased loved ones has made the meaning of these flowers (but only in Italy) decidedly fatal and not very cheerful, making them little used in bunches and bouquets.
Too bad, because these are beautiful flowers. We are so used to seeing chrysanthemums in cemeteries, that even the smell of the foliage of these plants reminds us of the dead.
Chrysanthemums, like all asteraceae, have very particular flowers: what we see as a single flower is actually an inflorescence.
It is an inflorescence called the flower head, which brings together many tiny flowers, all close neighbors; in the most typical form the flowers that are at the center of the inflorescence are tubular, of yellow color; while the flowers that make up the outer edge of the inflorescence present a single large petal.
The flowers without petals form the central disk, the petals of the external flowers are those that seem to us the corolla of the flower.
Therefore, in the stradado chrysanthemums, all the flowers that make up the inflorescence have petals, and therefore the inflorescence becomes a huge hemisphere of fleshy petals.
One can see very well the presence of so many flowers in a flower head when the plant produces seeds, in fact, the disk that supports the flower head is completely covered with small seeds; a striking example of this are the sunflowers.