The season of awakening nature from winter slumber is the one during which your commitment to gardening will have to be more careful and constant. In return your garden will repay you with the sight of colorful and copious blooms and abundant foliage.
Once the winter is over, the first necessary job to be carried out consists in a general cleaning of the soil from the dry leaves as well as from the now unusable mulching material, to which the weed removal must follow in order to prevent its flowering which, with the development of new seeds, could favor the regrowth of the same.
Once the soil is freed we will be able, after hoeing it to move the ground still hardened by frost, to carry out a very important operation for plants in spring, that is to say fertilizing. Through the same, mixing to the ground natural substances such as manure or earthworm fertilizer or products of chemical origin such as granular fertilizer, we will make the same soft and rich in elements useful for the development of plants.
Another recommended operation in the spring concerns pruning, which for some plants should be done precisely in this period after they have already produced the flowers, to avoid the risk of eliminating, together with the old branches, even the possible buds. Pruning, however, should never be drastic, limiting itself to shortening the very elongated branches as well as eliminating the leaves, so as to avoid, if we notice any signs of fungal diseases, the spread of the disease in the garden, favored by the warm humid climate of spring.
This is also the most suitable season for transplanting those botanical species with slow or excessive growth problems. In any case, it is essential not to carry out this operation during the flowering phase and to adapt the size of the new containers to that of the plants, first eliminating the dry earth from the surface of the sod and pruning the diseased roots without damaging the rest.
The high temperatures of the warm season can create a stopping factor for the growth of our plants, especially for those grown in pots. In fact, the sun, by over-heating the container walls, can damage the roots to the point of burning them. For this reason it is advisable to move the most delicate plants to shady spots where their light and heat do not reach directly.
Operation to be carried out throughout the year depending on the needs, but even more so in the summer season, is watering. In fact, by providing plants with the right water supply they require to cope with the heat of summer, they are prevented from withering and dying. Even the watering should be carried out however with criterion, avoiding to wet the plants during the day but in the evening or early morning and letting the often cold water coming from the tap in the watering can rest, so as not to cause them a shock very harmful thermal.
The season of falling leaves during which the plants are preparing to face the long winter sleep is the least demanding, from the point of view of work in the garden, compared to spring or summer. However it is necessary to carry out some operations that are indispensable to prepare them to face the cold season in the best way and to guarantee the right vegetative growth in spring.
The main of these is the fertilization, which will be carried out, as in spring, preferably with substances of organic origin such as manure and in order to remedy the impoverishment of the soil caused by the summer. It will also be necessary to avoid the accumulation of too many fallen leaves on the ground, collecting and storing them in a container where, decomposed, can then be used as fertilizer.
Finally, autumn is the ideal season to plant flowering bulbs such as crocuses, daffodils or tulips, which will color your garden from the first warmth of next spring.
With the arrival of winter the garden faces its vegetative rest period. However, if we haven't already done so in the fall, we still have time to plant spring-flowering bulbous plants.
If instead we want to make our garden seem less bare, we could plant those species that adapt very well to the rigors of the cold season and give a touch of color with their flowers or berries, such as violets or gaultheria.
In order to shelter the most delicate plants from frost, in addition to sheltering those cultivated in pots such as oleander, gardenia or hibiscus in a cold greenhouse, mulching is essential, ie covering the adjacent land with straw, leaves, needles of pine or peat, for those grown in the open ground.
Finally it is necessary to reduce the waterings, making them only in case of need and stop the fertilizations to resume them with the beautiful season.