The nursery: what it is and how it is composed
The nursery is equipped with a variable operational and logistic structure according to the production address and the kind of specialization. Characterized by numerous sectors, each of which is set up in such a way as to comply with a specific phase of the production cycle, it presents the so-called collections, that is cultivated plots in which are placed the mother plants from which the material is then taken (offshoots from offshoots) , scions, cuttings, seeds, rooting cuttings and so on) of first propagation. Depending on the purpose of the nursery, the collections may be more or less significant: for example, there are several large companies managed by private entities that are specialized in maintaining varietal germplasm, with only nurserymen among the buyers. From the health point of view, this sector must be equipped with particular devices, such as for example the positioning of anti-insect barriers to avoid viral diseases. A nursery is usually present in a nursery, destined, as one can guess from the name, to the production of the cuttings, obtained mainly by cutting. Positioned in the open ground but more often also including rooting benches and bins equipped with basal heating systems and nebulization systems, it is usually divided into different sections: one in the greenhouse, where the self-rooting of the evergreens takes place, and one all 'open, where the cutting of deciduous species takes place.
The nestaio and the micro-propagation laboratory
Connected to the vine grower is the nestaio, in which the grafting operations are carried out, both on the cuttings of the table-type rootstocks and on the rootstock rootstocks in the field. Here the plants are preserved before transplanting, for a vegetative cycle. Inside the seedbed, instead, the propagation of seedlings takes place: formed by pallets inside the seven or outdoor beds, it welcomes the seedlings only for a few months, before they are subjected to grafting or transplanting. Sometimes a micro-propagation laboratory, a very specialized environment where virus-free plants are produced, can also be found in a nursery: everything happens starting from the cultivation of embryonic tissues in vitro, which are usually taken from vegetative apexes. The laboratory is equipped, of course, with specific equipment such as autoclaves, climatic cells, thermotherapy systems or sterile hoods, and requires specially qualified personnel. There is also a planting house, that is to say the place where the propagated plants are made to stand before being put on the market: it is in this period that, through the breeding pruning, they take shape. The plant is present in any fruit nursery: as regards the permanence, it lasts, depending on the species propagated, one, two or three years. Consequently, the productive specialization of the structure determines the breadth of the sector. In many ornamental nurseries destined for the realization of plants for parks and gardens, instead, the propagated plants could remain even several years, considering that the degree of development and the age make increase the commercial value.
Furthermore, in the nursery there is a cultivation area, more normally extended in the propagation area, in which the plants are positioned on the basis of cultivation successions or precise schemes (in recent years there has been a massive diffusion of the breeding in container, which compared to breeding in the open ground proves more comfortable in many respects).
Finally, the greenhouses welcome different phases of the production cycle. Essential structures in the horticultural and ornamental nursery, they differ according to the equipment present and the construction material. When the temperature goes below zero degrees, heating is used as a rescue operation, or by passing hot water through pipes located under the benches or under the floor, or by forcing hot air inside polyethylene pipes suspended. Cooling, on the other hand, can be achieved through a device for automatically opening the ridge and the walls, or alternatively with forced ventilation using wet filters. Furthermore, greenhouses should be distinguished according to their function: for example, propagation greenhouses without nebulization are used for species without any difficulty whatsoever, while those equipped with nebulization are characterized by fog or mist systems, installed on special benches or in the whole environment, using polyethylene tunnels that favor gaseous exchanges preventing the flow of water. Acclimatization greenhouses are also widespread, constituting the intermediate stage between the propagation greenhouses and the open field. Finally, drying greenhouses exploit the greenhouse effect of the heat of the sun to dry products such as figs, grains, tobacco, hay, corn, mushrooms, tomatoes (therefore products of forestry, agriculture and forestry) but also for wood chips, biomass, mashed, ground wood, wood already patched or bundles.
The nursery: The fight against diseases caused by parasites
Inside the nursery, plant health is assured by the use of chemical products aimed at fighting pests and pests, according to the parameters of the calendar fight. Furthermore, it is not uncommon to proceed with fumigation and geo-disinfestation to chemically sterilize the soils and substrates used in the nestaio.