Plant production: as happens at the industrial level
Plant production is entrusted, in most cases, to nurseries, that is to say to those structures of the agricultural sector that are dedicated to the development of plant species that will have to be destined for trade. It is used to distinguish, in particular, between forest nurseries - which are specialized in the development of forest essences -, fruit nurseries - engaged in the production of pome fruits, vines, citrus fruits, stone fruit, olive trees and other fruit plants -, ornamental nurseries - which produce plants ornamental - and horticultural nurseries, which instead devote themselves to the production of vegetable species that will then have to be transplanted in the open field or in the greenhouse. Plant production, therefore, takes place within structures whose dimensions and logistics can vary according to the production address and the degree of specialization.
Nurseries: collections and seedbeds
Inside a nursery, there is never a shortage of so-called collections, cultivated plots that house the mother plants from which offcuts are taken from offshoots, scions, cuttings, seeds, rooting cuttings and other first propagation materials. Depending on the purpose of the production structure, this sector may be more or less developed. The collections, however, require the preparation of special protections in order to promote an excellent health status: this is the case, for example, of the anti-insect barriers that serve to prevent virosis. In nurseries, moreover, the first propagation of seedlings is entrusted to the seedbed, located inside greenhouses - and consisting of pallets and caissons - or outdoors - and consisting of simple beds. Here, the seedlings are placed for a few months before being grafted or transplanted.
The vine growers, intended for reproduction by cuttings
The production of certain plant species, on the other hand, also requires the presence of a vine grower, a sector in which the production of rooted shoots takes place, above all through cuttings. It is usually positioned in the open ground, but not infrequently includes rooting pallets and chests, sometimes equipped with basal heating and nebulization systems. The cuttings of deciduous species take place outdoors, while the self-rooting of evergreen species occurs in the greenhouse. The micro-propagation laboratory is also important but not always present: it is a highly specialized part in which, starting from the cultivation and development of embryonic tissues in vitro, we proceed to the production of species without viruses. The laboratory, as one can easily imagine, is equipped with climatic cells, systems for thermo-therapy and other specialized equipment such as autoclaves, sterile hoods, etc. It is not always present also because it requires professionals and specialized experts. For the production of nursery plants, the nestaio is also necessary, directly connected to the vine shooter: here grafting operations take place, carried out at a table or in the field depending on whether they concern the cuttings or the cuttings.
The planting and the propagation of fruit trees
The planting plant, on the other hand, is a sector in which propagated plants are positioned before being put on the market: it is during this phase that their training is completed through the breeding pruning. The plant grower, present in all fruit nurseries, welcomes plant species for different times: from one to three years. Consequently, its dimensions are connected to the type of productive specialization concerning the nursery. Different, however, is the case of nurseries that host ornamental plants destined for parks and gardens: in fact, plants can remain on the plant for many years, considering that their commercial value also depends, if not above all, on the development phase and the age of the species. It should be pointed out, however, that the species that are sold in earthen bread are grown inside cellular and phytocell containers, that is to say special plastic containers that favor a less expensive and easier management.
Plant production: the importance of greenhouses: nebulisation, cooling and heating
Very often, however, the production of the plants cannot disregard the presence of greenhouses, different from each other depending on the equipment that characterizes them and the material - polycarbonate, glass - with which they are made. The temperature in the greenhouses can be cooled by automatically opening the ridge and the walls (in small greenhouses) or through forced ventilation with the aid of wet filters (in large greenhouses). As far as heating is concerned, instead, it is obtained by means of hot air present in the polyethylene pipes or hot water flowing under the floor. In conclusion, it is necessary to make a distinction between propagation greenhouses without nebulization, especially suitable for species without particular difficulties, and propagation greenhouses equipped with nebulization, which are characterized by fog or mist type systems installed on special benches with tubes that favor gaseous exchanges preventing the flow of water. As can be seen, therefore, at the industrial level the production of plants requires the use of specific machinery and equipment, as well as specialized knowledge, aimed among other things at promoting healthy growth and development of the cultivated species.